Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

Sensing technology is one of the three elements (perception, decision-making, and action) of cash robots. Industrial robots have different sensor types and specifications depending on the tasks they complete. Generally, robot sensors can be divided into two categories according to different uses: internal sensors used to detect the robot’s own state and external sensors used to detect the robot’s related environmental parameters.

Detailed explanation of robot vision sensor

A new type of industrial robot has come to the forefront of the industry. Their main feature is that they can safely assist humans in their work. There are a lot of people talking about them on the Internet, but have you seriously understood them?

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

In 2008, many people loved them just out of curiosity. In 2012, robots were considered fashionable. But in 2013, a large number of competitors began their robot era and entered the artificial intelligence battlefield.

Robots have become one of the hottest topics and have been the focus of many media. Now, many people will say that robots are our future. A series of robots enter the manufacturing industry.

About Robot Vision Sensor

Sensing technology is one of the three elements (perception, decision-making, and action) of cash robots. Industrial robots have different sensor types and specifications depending on the tasks they complete. Generally, robot sensors can be divided into two categories according to different uses: internal sensors used to detect the robot’s own state and external sensors used to detect the robot’s related environmental parameters.

The content shared today is that of the external sensors of the robot-the vision sensor, which is the “glasses” of the robot.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

Robots have “eyes”, which are very important to us. Most of the things that humans get from the outside world are obtained from glasses. The number of human visual cells is more than 3,000 times the number of human auditory cells and more than 100 times the number of skin sensory cells. If the robot is to be given a higher level of intelligence, the robot must obtain more information about the surrounding world through the vision system.

Example: Typical application of robot vision:

Welding robot uses vision system for job positioning

The vision system guides the robot to perform spraying operations

The handling robot uses the vision system to guide the electromagnetic chuck to grab the workpiece

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]
Picture: Robot welding

The robot’s vision must be able to understand the information in the three-dimensional space, that is, the robot’s vision is different from text recognition or image recognition, and three-dimensional image processing is required.

Because the visual sensor can only obtain two-dimensional images, the same object can be viewed from different angles, and the obtained images are also different; the position of the light source is different, and the brightness and distribution of the obtained image are also different.

For this reason, people have taken many measures to solve this problem, and in order to reduce the burden of the visual system, improve the external environmental conditions as much as possible, strengthen the function of the visual system itself and use better methods for information processing.

1. Video camera

2. Photoelectric conversion device

(CCD sensor, MOS image sensor)

3. PSD sensor

4. Shape recognition sensor

5. Industrial robot vision system

(Basic principles of industrial robot vision system, industrial robot system that uses visual recognition to grasp workpieces)

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

The robot’s “eyes” actually “cannot see” anything. It’s just that the robot is embedded with vision sensors. Can scan the surrounding environment to determine whether there are obstacles. The robot can slow down or stop when encountering humans or obstacles.

As more and more robots enter the factory floor, its safety is still a major concern. Robots and safety complement each other. You cannot collaborate with humans without mitigating the risk of injury.

If your robot is manipulating a sharp object, it is not safe to have a person next to it without protective safety measures. The other situation is whether the robot is handling heavy objects. If the object falls or becomes a projectile at a certain speed, it will cause damage.

In order for people to feel safe around these robots, we need to understand what the robots are going to do next.

Low cost, automation is a real robot. By adding robots to the factory, the factory can achieve higher output with the same number of people, and achieve the highest production efficiency at the lowest cost.

Combining robots with autonomous mobile robots, augmented reality, wearable devices and other advanced technologies to equip smart, digital factories, you have an entertaining, forward-looking automated manufacturing future.

In the future, robots will work hand in hand with human teams to improve efficiency and productivity.

Technology and Application of Smart Vision Sensor

Visual sensing technology is one of the seven categories of sensing technology. The visual sensor refers to: calculate the feature quantity of the object (area, center of gravity, length, position, etc.) by processing the image captured by the camera, and A sensor that outputs data and judgment results.

1. Overview of Vision Sensor

Visual sensing technology is one of the seven categories of sensing technology. The visual sensor refers to: calculate the feature quantity of the object (area, center of gravity, length, position, etc.) by processing the image captured by the camera, and A sensor that outputs data and judgment results.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

Two, classification

1. 3D vision sensing technology

3D vision sensors have a wide range of uses, such as multimedia mobile phones, webcams, digital cameras, robot visual navigation, automotive safety systems, biomedical pixel analysis, human-machine interfaces, virtual reality, surveillance, industrial inspection, wireless remote sensing, microscopes Technology, astronomical observation, autonomous marine navigation, scientific instruments, etc. These different applications are based on 3D vision image sensor technology. In particular, 3D imaging technology has urgent applications in industrial control and automotive autonomous navigation.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

2. Intelligent visual sensing technology

The smart vision sensor under the smart vision sensing technology is also called a smart camera, and it is a new technology that has been developing fastest in the field of machine vision in recent years. The smart camera is a small machine vision system with image acquisition, image processing and information transmission functions. It is an embedded computer vision system. It integrates image sensors, digital processors, communication modules and other peripherals into a single camera. Due to this integrated design, the complexity of the system can be reduced and reliability can be improved. At the same time, the system size is greatly reduced, which broadens the application field of vision technology.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

The advantages of intelligent vision sensors, such as easy learning, easy use, easy maintenance, convenient installation, and the ability to build a reliable and effective visual inspection system in a short period of time, have led to rapid development of this technology.

Third, the realization basis of visual sensing technology

The image acquisition unit of the vision sensor is mainly composed of a CCD/CMOS camera, an optical system, an illumination system and an image acquisition card, which converts the optical image into a digital image and transmits it to the image processing unit. Image sensor devices commonly used mainly include CCD image sensors and CMOS image sensors. The implementation principles, advantages and disadvantages of the two sensors will be introduced below.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

Fourth, the application of visual sensing technology

1. Car body visual inspection system

Body molding is one of the key processes in automobile manufacturing. The requirements for various indexes of the body are strict, and 100% inspection of the body is required. The traditional car body inspection method is to use a three-coordinate measuring machine, which is complicated in operation, slow in speed, and long in construction period, so it can only be randomly inspected.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

Generally, the key dimensions of the car body are mainly the size of the windshield, the position of the edge of the door installation, and the position of the positioning hole. Therefore, the visual sensors are distributed near these positions to measure the spatial position dimensions of the corresponding edges, holes, and surfaces. The measuring station is designed on the production line. After the car body is positioned, it is placed in a frame. The frame is composed of metal columns and rods distributed vertically and horizontally. The visual sensor can be flexibly installed on the frame as required. According to the number of measuring points, a corresponding number of vision sensors can be installed, (usually each vision sensor measures one point to be measured). According to different types of sensors, there are binocular stereo vision sensors, contour sensors and other types.

The working process of the measuring system is as follows: the car body is transported from the production line to the measuring station for accurate positioning, and then the sensor starts to work in the required order. The computer collects and processes the image of the detection point to calculate the three-dimensional coordinates of the measured point, the calculated value and the standard value Compare, get the test result, and send the body to the measuring station.

2. Online visual measurement system for steel pipe straightness and cross-section size

In industrial production, seamless steel pipe is an important type of industrial product, and its quality parameters are important data for manufacturing. The straightness and cross-sectional area of ​​the steel pipe are the main geometric parameters, which control the quality of seamless steel pipe manufacturing. It is critical, but the measurement of parameters is a difficult problem due to the following reasons: (1) The seamless steel pipe adopts non-contact measurement, and the manufacturing site environment is harsh; (2) The space size of the seamless steel pipe is large, which also requires the detection system to have Large measurement space. The emergence of visual sensing technology has solved the above-mentioned problems. The visual sensing technology uses non-contact measurement and has a large measurement range.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

The measurement system is composed of multiple structured light sensors. The light plane projected by the structured light projector on the sensor intersects the steel pipe under test to obtain a part of the arc on the circumference of the steel pipe section. The sensor measures the position of the part of the arc in space. Each sensor in the system realizes the measurement of a part of the arc on the cross section. Through appropriate mathematical methods, the size of the cross section and the spatial position of the center of the cross section are obtained by the arc fitting, and the straightness parameter is obtained by the spatial envelope of the distribution of the center of the cross section. Under the control of the computer, the measurement system can complete the measurement within a few seconds to meet the real-time requirements.

3. Visual measurement of three-dimensional shape

The digital measurement technology of three-dimensional shape is the basic supporting technology for reverse engineering and product digital design, management and manufacturing. It realizes the mechanism of digital measurement of three-dimensional topography is the combination of visual non-contact, rapid measurement and the latest high-resolution digital imaging technology. Since the measured objects are mostly large objects with complex surfaces, the measurement is usually divided into two parts: local three-dimensional information acquisition and overall splicing. First, the visual scanning sensor is used to measure each local area of ​​the measured shape, and then the splicing technology is used to combine The topography of each part is stitched together to finally get a complete image.

Technology and application of intelligent robot vision sensor[detailed]

The visual scanning probe of this sensor is designed with the principle of local binocular stereo vision measurement. The overall splicing of the topography is essentially to place the collected data on public coordinates, so that the overall data description can be obtained. Use high-resolution digital cameras to collect data from the top of the measurement space at different angles and positions. Use the principle of beam directional intersection adjustment to obtain the control point space coordinates and establish a global coordinate system. Finally, each coordinate system is associated, Conversion, complete data splicing.

Five, summary

Vision originates from a way in which the biological world obtains information from the external environment. It is the most effective means for biological organisms to obtain information in the natural world. It is one of the core components of biological intelligence. 80% of human information is obtained by vision. Based on this inspiration, researchers began to install “eyes” for machinery so that machines can obtain information from the outside world by “seeing” like humans. This gave birth to a new discipline-computer vision , People imitate the production of machine vision system through the study of biological vision system. Although it is very different from the human vision system, this is a breakthrough advancement for sensor technology. The essence of vision sensor technology is image processing technology, which is presented in front of researchers by intercepting the signal on the surface of the object and drawing it into an image. The emergence of visual sensing technology solves the problem that other sensors cannot be operated due to the size of the site or the huge detection equipment, which is widely welcomed by the industrial manufacturing community.

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